BUILD TO UNDERSTAND CIRCUITS
Building Electronics Tutorial
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PART 1. IN THE KINGDOM OF ELECTRICITY (PASSIVE CIRCUITS)

Applying Ohm's Law ...

1. Voltage Causes Current in the most elementary 2-component voltage-controlled electric circuit (a voltage source and a resistor).

General principle: Difference causes movement.
General building blocks: pressurelike source, impediment as a load.
General atributes: pressurelike, flowlike, impedimentlike.

Electric principle: Voltage causes current.
Electric building blocks: ideal voltage source, real (resistive, Ohmic) load.
Electric variables: voltage, current, resistance.

2. Voltage Causes Current in the more "complicated" 3-component voltage-controlled electric circuit (the previous 2-component circuit enlarged with an ideal current load).

Building blocks derived: voltage-to-current converter, ideal current load.

3. Producing a Current from a Voltage by the circuit of a compound voltage-controlled current source.
Building block composed: voltage controlled current source (ideal voltage source + voltage-to-current converter).

Applications: battery charger, current loop interface.

4. Measuring a Voltage by a Current in the circuit of a compound voltage load.

Building block composed: compound voltage load (voltage-to-current converter + ideal current load).

Applications: compound voltmeter (voltage-to-current converter + ammeter), LED indicator, transistor switch.

5. Resistance Determines Current. Resistance as an input in the 3-component voltage-controlled electric circuit.

Building block derived: resistance-to-current converter.

6. Producing a Current by Varying a Resistance in the circuit of a compound resistance-controlled (RC)current source.

Building block composed: resistance controlled current source (constant voltage source + resistance-to-current converter).

Applications: rheostat, DC motor current supply.

7. Measuring a Resistance by a Current.

Building blocks composed (applications): compound ohmmeter (constant voltage source + ammeter),resistive sensors with current output (constant voltage source + resistance-to-current converter + ammeter).

8. Both Voltage and Resistance Set Current in the 3-component voltage-controlled electric circuit.

Building block derived: voltage-into-resistance divider.

Applications: R/2R ladder DAC with current output (principle).

Reversing Ohm's Law ...

9. Current Causes Voltage in the Norton elementary 2-component electric circuit (a current source and a resistor).

General principle: Movement causes difference.

General building block: flowlike source.

Electric principle: Current causes voltage.

Electric building block: ideal current source.

10. Current Causes Voltage in the more "complicated" 3-component current-controlled electric circuit (the previous 2-component circuit enlarged with an ideal voltage load).

Building blocks derived: current-to-voltage converter, ideal voltage load.

11. Producing a Voltage from a Current by the circuit of a current-controlled voltage source.

Building block composed: current controlled voltage source (ideal current source + current-to-voltage converter).

12. Measuring a Current by a Voltage in the circuit of a compound current load.

Building block composed: compound current load (current-to-voltage converter + ideal voltage load).

Applications: compound ammeter (current-to-voltage converter + voltmeter), current sensing, current feedback etc.

13. Resistance Determines Current. Resistance as an input in the 3-component current-controlled electric circuit.

Building block derived: resistance-to-voltage converter.

14. Producing a Voltage by Varying a Resistance in the circuit of a compound resistance-controlled voltage source.

Building block composed: resistance controlled voltage source (constant current source + resistance-to-voltage converter).

15. Measuring a Resistance by a Voltage.

Building blocks composed (applications): compound ohmmeter (constant current source + voltmeter), resistive sensors with voltage output (constant current source + resistance-to-voltage converter + voltmeter).

16. Both Current and Resistance Set Voltage in the 3-component current-controlled electric circuit.

Building block derived: current-by-resistance multiplier.

Applications: R/2R ladder DAC with voltage output (principle).

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To be continued