Weekly updated columns:  questions - paradoxes - contradictions - conflicts - principles - building schemes

Constant  e-mail columns:  circuits - questions - paradoxes - lessons

In this page I continuously gather and structure basic circuit building blocks in the area of basic analog, digital and mixed electronics. In order to know all about a particular circuit, copy the circuit name from the list, paste the name in the subject field, add additional questions in the message body and e-mail me. Note that your e-mail will not be automatically answered. I will prepare every e-mail answer especially for you revealing the basic idea behind the circuit, structure and operation in a catchy and exciting manner. You will get unusual and original explanations of the circuit phenomenon that you have never seen before!

In the e-mail, I will expose various materials on this subject including: text explanations of the circuit phenomena using analogies from our everyday experience, building "scenario" of the circuit, list of links to corresponding pages of the site and to other web resources, attachments containing interactive multimedia movies etc. See also the constant e-mail circuit columns questions, paradoxes, lessons and the weekly updated circuit columns questions (flash animated), paradoxes (flash animated), contradictions, conflicts, principles, building schemes.

Passive Circuit Building Blocks (38)
Passive V-to-I Circuits Passive I-to-V Circuits Passive V-to-V Circuits
Voltage-to-Current Converter Current-to-Voltage Converter Voltage-to-Voltage Converter
(Voltage Divider)
Parallel Voltage Summer
(Subtractor, Comparator)
Compound Current Source Compound Voltage Source
Voltmeter Built from Ammeter Ammeter Built from Voltmeter Voltmeter with Varying Rin Voltmeter with Constant Rin
Resistance-to-Current Converter Resistance-to-Voltage Converter R1(R2)-to-Voltage Converter R1/R2-to-Voltage Converter
Ohmmeter Built from Ammeter Ohmmeter Built from Voltmeter Unipolar Varying Voltage Source Bipolar Varying Voltage Source
Voltage-into-Resistance Divider Current-by-Resistance Multiplier Displacement-to-Voltage Converter Voltage-by-Ratio Multiplier
Capacitive V-to-I Differentiator Capacitive I-to-V Integrator Capacitive V-to-V Differentiator Capacitive V-to-V Integrator
Blocking (Coupling) Capacitor Bypassing (Shunting) Capacitor Pulse Shortening Circuit Capacitive Voltage Divider
Inductive V-to-I Integrator Inductive I-to-V Differentiator Inductive V-to-V Integrator Inductive V-to-V Differentiator
Decoupling Inductor Inductor as a Current Source

Diode Circuit Building Blocks (21)
Diode Switching Circuits Voltage Stabilizers, Voltage Sources Functional Blocks
Series Reverse Polarity Protector (Zener) Diode Stabilizer V-to-I Antilogarithmic Converter
Decoupling Diode Multidiode Stabilizer (Voltage Dropper) I-to-V Logarithmic Converter
Diode Rectifier DC Potential Shifting Circuit Diode V-to-V Antilogarithmic Converter
Voltage-Multiplier Circuits Diode Biasing Circuits Diode V-to-V Logarithmic Converter
Voltage Autoswitching Diodes Diode Voltage Compensation Diode Temperature Sensor
Current Autoswitching Diodes

Series Diode Limiter (Clipping Circuit)

3-State Zero LED Indicator   Parallel Diode Limiter (Clipping Circuit)
Parallel Reverse Polarity Protector

Analog Diode Switches

Transistor Circuit Building Blocks (23)
Amplifiers Functional Blocks Voltage Sources (Stabilizers) Current Sources
Emitter Follower Unity-Gain Phase Splitter Emitter Follower as a Stabilizer NPN Transistor as a Current Sink
Grounded-Emitter Amplifier   Feedback Voltage Regulator PNP Transistor as a Current Source
Common-Emitter Amplifier
Common-Base Amplifier     Emitter Follower as a Current Source
AC-Coupled Transistor Amplifiers Differential Amplifier as a Divider   Transistor as a Dynamic Load
AC Amplifier with Bootstrapping
Differential Amplifier Transistor as a Comparator   Current Mirror
Push-Pull Stage
Darlington Transistorm Configuration
Sziklai Connection
Cascode Amplifiers
Amplifiers with Split Supplies
Transistor Switch

Active Op-amp Inverting Circuit Building Blocks (36)
Active V-to-I Circuits Active I-to-V Circuits Active Op-amp Inverting V-to-V Circuits
Voltage-to-Current Converter Current-to-Voltage Converter Voltage-to-Voltage Inverter
(Attenuator, Follower, Amplifier)
Voltage Inverting Summer
(Averaging, Amplifying)
Compound Current Source Compound Voltage Source
Voltmeter Built from Ammeter Ammeter Built from Voltmeter Inverting Millivoltmeter
Resistance-to-Current Converter Resistance-to-Voltage Converter R1-to-Voltage Converter R2-to-Voltage Converter
Ohmmeter Built from Ammeter Ohmmeter Built from Voltmeter R1/R2-to-Voltage Converter
Voltage-into-Resistance Divider Current-by-Resistance Multiplier Displacement-to-Voltage Converter Multiplying-Dividing Circuit