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*Class Exercise 5 ** (March 29 - April 10, 2004)*

*So far, we have managed to derive, build and even "invent" a total of 36 circuit building blocks. Here, we will derive a further 10 building blocks which we will put in the library; thus it will grow to 46 basic circuits:
*

KINDS | parallel | series | ||||

limiters | positive | negative | both | positive | negative | both |

stabilizers | parallel voltage stabilizer | potential shifting circuits | ||||

functional devices | logarithmic converters | antilogarithmic converters |

**5.1.1. Series diode limiter (clipping circuit).** Applications: signal former; rectifier; separating element; reverse polarity protector etc. Error caused by the forward voltage VF. Discussion: How do we decrease the error (a settlement by compromise)? How do we remove completely the error (looking for an ideal solution)?

**5.1.2. Parallel diode limiter (clipping circuit).** Applications: signal former; reverse polarity protector (with series connected fuse); transient protector etc. Error caused by the forward voltage VF. Decreasing the error. Completely removing the error (looking for an ideal solution)?

**5.2. Diode as a voltage-stable non-linear element.** Functional notion of RV non-linear element. Characteristic curves of an ideal RV element. Simplified IV characteristic curve of kind 2.

**5.2.1. Circuits with parallel connected diode elements.** Applications: voltage stabilizer (regulator); overvoltage op-amp input protector; current self-switching circuits (LED indicators, emitter-coupled circuits; differential amplifiers, TTL logic circuits etc.). Temperature influence (is it harmful or useful?). Discussion 1: How do we make good voltage source in electricity? What are its imperfections? How do we overcome the imperfections by using electronic components? Discussion 2: Is it feedback circuit? Might we imagine that it is? What is the benefit of this approach?

**5.3. Diode as a logarithmic non-linear element.** Real IV characteristic curve of kind 3.

**5.3.1. Logarithmic converters .** (D log converter). Applications: an elementary building block for assembling more complicated integrators. Imperfections caused by a real current source. Looking for a remedy.

5.3.1.1. Diode logarithmic converter with current input and voltage output

**5.3.2. Antilogarithmic converters .** (D antilog converter). Applications: an elementary building block for assembling more complicated antilog converters. Imperfections caused by a real current source. Looking for a remedy.

5.3.1.1. Diode antilogarithmic converter with voltage input and current output

*Last updated
June 28, 2004
*

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